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BROOKS, D.K. "The Meaning of pH at Low Temperatures During Extracorporeal Circulation". Anaesthesia. 19, 337; 1964.

BUCKLEY-SHARP, M.D. and MILLER, A.L. "The Anion Gap". Lancet, 2, 206; 1973.

BRUNELL, J.M., TEUBNER, E.S. and SIMPSON, D.P. "Metabolic Acidosis Accompanying Potassium Deprivation". Am. J. Physiol. 227, 329; 1974.

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CARESS, J.L., KISSACK, A.S. and SOLVIN, A.J. "The Effect of Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis on Myocardial Contractility". J. Thorac. and Cardiovas. Surg. 56, 571; 1968.

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CHAN, J.C.M. Correspondence: "Acid-Base Problems After I.V. Amino Acids". N. Engl. J. Med. 288, 420; 1973.

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COHEN, R.D. and WOODS, H.F. Clinical and Biochemical Aspects of Lactic Acidosis.Blackwell, Oxford, 1976.

COHN, R.M., YUDKOFF, M., ROTHMAN, R. and SEGAL, S. "Isovaleric Acidemia : Use of Glycerine Therapy on Neonates". N. Engl. J. Med. 299, 996; 1978.

CRESSE, R., NEIL, M.W. and LEDINGHAM, J.M. "The Terminology of Acid-Base Regulation". Lancet, 1, 419; 1962.

DAILEY, W.J.R., MEYER, H.B.P. and SUNSHINE, P. "Mechanical Ventilation of Newborn Infants : III. Historical Comments and Development of a Scoring System for Selection of Infants". Anesthesiology. 34, 119; 1971.

DAVENPORT, H.W. The A.B.C. of Acid-Base Chemistry. University of Chicago Press, 1974.

DAVIS, R.P., LOGLAND, ."A Gibbsian View of Acid-Base Balance". Am. J. Med. 42, 159; 1967. (Against [H+] and in favour of pH).

DELL, R.B. and WINTERS, R.W. "Acid-Base Effects of Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate Solution : A Commentary". J. Pediatr. 80, 681; 1972.

EDMARK, K.W. "Continuous Blood pH Measurement with Extra-Corporeal Cooling". Surg. Gynecol & Obstet. 109, 743; 1959.

EDWARDS, R., WINNIE, A.P. and RAMANURTHY, S. "Acute Hypocapneic Hypokalemia : An Iatrogenic Anaesthetic Complication". Anesth. and Analg. (Cleve), 56, 786; 1977.

ENGEL, K. and KILDEBERG, P. "Physiological Viewpoint of Clinical Acid-Base Diagnostics". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., Vol. 37, Supp. 6, p. 21; 1977.

FILLMORE, S.J., SHAPIRO, M. and KILLIP, T. "Serial Blood Gas Studies During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation". Ann. Intern. Med. 72, 465; 1970.

FINSTERER, V., LUHR, H.G. and WIRTH, A.E. "Effects of Acute Hypercapnia and Hypocapnia on Plasma and Red Cell Potassium, Blood Lactate and Base Excess in Man During Anaesthesia". Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand., 22, 353; 1978.

FULOP, M. and FULOP, M. :"Dogma Disputed : Acid-Base Diagrams. Maths, Myths and Measurements". Lancet, 2, 637; 1974.

GALE, E.A.M. and TATTERSALL, R.B. "Can Phenformin-Induced Lactic Acidosis be Prevented?". Br. Med. J. 2, 972; 1976.

GALMARINI, D., COMPODONICO, J.F. and WENK, R.D. "Effects of Alkalosis on Ouabain Toxicity in the Dog", J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 186, 199; 1973.

GARELLA, S., CHAZAN, J.A. and COHEN, J.J. "Saline Resistant Metabolic Alkalosis or 'Chloride Wasting Nephropathy' Report on Four Patients With Severe K Depletion". Am. Intern. Med. 73, 31; 1970.

GARELLA, S., DANA, C.L. and CHAZAN, J.A. "Severity of Metabolic Acidosis as a Determinant of Bicarbonate Requirements", N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 121; 1973.

GARELLA, S., TZAMALOUKAS, A.H. and CHAZAN, J.A. "Effect of Isotonic Volume Expansion on Extracellular Bicarbonate Stores in Normal Dogs". Am. J. Physiol. 225, 628; 1973.

GAUDRY, P.L., DUFFY, C. and BOOKALLIL, M.J. "pH and Titratable Acidity of Intravenous Infusion Solutions". Anaesth. Intensive Care, 1, 41; 1972.

GAUDRY, P.L., JOSEPH, D. and DUFFY, C. "The pH and Hydrogen Ion Content of Stored A.C.D. Blood". Anaesth. Intensive Care, 2, 247; 1974.

GERST, P.H., FLEMING, W.H. and MALM, J.R. "Effect of Acidosis and Alkalosis Upon the Susceptibility of the Heart to Ventricular Fibrillation". Circulation. Suppl. III to Vols. 29 and 30, III, 83; 1964.


GOLDBERG, M., GREEN, S.B. and MOSS, M.L. et al. "Computer-Based Instructions and Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders". JAMA, 223, 269; 1973.

GOLDSTEIN, M.R. "Recovery From Severe Metabolic Acidosis". JAMA. 234, 1119; 1975.

GOODRICH, C.A. "Acid-base balance in euthermic and hibernatic mammals". American J. Physiology. 224, 1185; 1973.

HARKEN, A.H. "Lactic Acidosis". Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 142, 593; 1976.

HARKEN, A.H., GABEL, R.A. and FENEL, V. "Hydrochloric Acid in the Correction of Metabolic Alkalosis". Arch. Surg. 110, 819; 1975.

HASSELBALCH, K.A. "Die 'Redizierte' und die 'Regulierte' Wassertoffzahl des Blutes". Biochem. Z. 74, 56; 1918. Cited by Siggaard-Andersen. Current Concepts of Acid-Base Measurement. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 133, 100; 1968.

HEIRD, W.C., DELL, R.B. and DRISCOLL, J.M., GREBIN, B. and WINTERS, R.W. "Metabolic Acidosis Resulting from I.V. Alimentation Mixtures Containing Synthetic Amino Acids". N. Engl. J. Med. 287, 943; 1972.


HERMANSEN, L. and OANES, J. "Blood and Muscle pH After Maximal Exercise in Man". J. Appl. Physiol. 32, 304; 1972.

HESSE, H.Dev., TONIN, C. and BOWIE, M.D. "Management of Metabolic Acidosis in Acute Gastro-enteritis". Br. Med. J. 2, 144; 1966. (NaHCO2 is quicker than NaCl, but both are effective).

HILLS, A.G. "pH and the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation". Am. J. Med. 55, 131; 1973.

HILL, D.W. Electronic Measurement Techniques in Anaesthetic and Surgery. Chapter 7. Electrode Systems for measuring the pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions of blood. Published by Butterworth 1970.

HOWARTH, P.J.N. "RIpH Revisited (Dogma Disputed)". Lancet. 1, 253; 1974.

HOWARTH, P.J.N. "The Physiological Assessment of Acid-Base Balance". Br. J. Dis. Chest. 69, 75; 1975.

HOWLANDS, W.S., SCHWEIZER, O. and BOYAN, C.P. "Effects of Buffering on the Mortality of Massive Blood Replacements". Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 121, 777; 1965.(NaHCO2 in massive transfusion).

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JONES, J.W., SEBASTIAN, A., HUTLER, H.N., SCHAMBELAN, M., SUTTON, J.M. and BIGLIERI, E.G. "Systemic and renal acid-base effects of chronic dietary potassium depletion in humans". Kidney International 21, 402; 1982.

JORGENSEN, K. and ASTRUP, P. "Standard Bicarbonate, its Clinical Significance and a New Method for its Determination". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 9, 122; 1957.


KAPPAGODA, C.T., LINDEN, R.J. and SNOW, A.M. "An Approach to the Problems of Acid-Base Balance". Clin. Sci. 39, 169; 1970.

KAPPAGODA, C.T., DEVERALL, P.B. and PANDAY, J. "Postoperative Alkalemia". J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 66, 305; 1973.

KASSIRER, J.P. and SCHWARTZ, W.B. (a) "A Response of Normal Man to Selective Depletion of HCl : Factors in the Genesis of Persistent Gastric Alkalosis". Am. J. Med. 40, 10; 1966.

KASSIRER, J.P. and SCHWARTZ, W.B. (B) "Correction of Metabolic Alkalosis in Man Without Repair of Potassium Deficiency : A Re-Evaluation of the Role of Potassium". Am. J. Med. 40, 19; 1966.

KASSIRER, J.P., BERKMAN, P.M., LAWRENZ, D.R. et al. "Critical Role of Chloride in Correction of Hypokalemic Alkalosis in Man". Am. J. Med. 38, 172; 1965.

KASSIRER, J.P., LONDON, A.M., GOLDMAN, D.M. and SCHWARTZ, W.B. "On the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Alkalosis in Hyperaldosteronism". Am. J. Med. 49, 306; 1970.

KASSIRER, J.P. "Serious Acid-Base Disorders". N. Engl. J. Med. 291, 773; 1974.

KIDSON, W., CASEY, J. and KRAEGEN, E. "Treatment of Severe Diabetes Mellitus by Insulin Infusion". Br. Med. J. 2, 691; 1974.

KING, A.J., COOKE, N.J. and McCUISH, A. "Acid-Base Changes During Treatment of Diabetic Keto-Acidosis". Lancet. 1, 478; 1974.

KIRBY, B.J. and McNICOL, M.W. "Acid-Base Status in Acute Myocardial Infarction". Lancet. 2, 1054; 1966.

LAKATOS and MUSGRAVE Edit. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge Uni. Press, 1974.

LAWSON, N.W., BUTLER, G.H. and RAY, C.T. "Alkalosis and Cardiac Arrythmias".Anesth. Analg. (Cleve) 52, 951; 1973.

Leading Article, "More Acid-Base Disturbances", Lancet., 2, 1102; 1963.

Leading Article, "Archives of Acid-Base Balance", N. Engl. J. Med., 272, 48; 1964.

Leading Article, "Diarrhoea and Acid-Base Disturbances", Lancet, 1, 1305; 1966.

Leading Article, "Lactic Acidosis". Lancet, 2, 27; 1973.

Leading Articles - (a) "Hydrochloric Acid for Metabolic Alkalosis". Lancet, 1, 720; 1974.

Leading Articles - (b) "Acids, Bases and Nomograms", Lancet, 2, 814; 1974.

Leading Article: "Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest", Lancet, 1, 946; 1976.

Leading Article, "The Anion Gap", Lancet, 1, 785; 1977.

Leading Article, "Brain Damage after Open-heart Surgery". Lancet, 1, 1161; 1982.

LEDINGHAM, I.McA. and NORMAN, J.N. "Acid-Base Studies in Experimental Circulatory Arrest", Lancet, 2, 967; 1962.

LeQUESNE, L.P. "Body Fluid Disturbances Resulting from Pyloric Dysfunction". Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 113, 1; 1961.

LIM, K.C. and WALSH, C.H. "Diabetic Keto-Alkalosis : A Readily Misdiagnosed Entity". Br. Med. J. 2, 19; 1976.

LOCK, J.E., LYNCH, R.E. and MAUER, S.M. "Metabolic Alkalosis in Children with Congestive Heart Failure". J. Pediatr. 87, 938; 1975.

LOUGHHEAD, M., BRAITHWAITE, J. and DENTON, M. "Life at pH 6.6". Lancet, 2. 952; 1978.

MacCONNACHIE, H.E. "An Old Fashioned Approach to Acid-Base Balance". Am. J. Med. 49, 504; 1970. (In favour of Arrhenius).

McCONNELL, D.H., WHITE, F., NELSON, R.L., GOLDSTEIN, M., MALONEY, J.V., DeLAND, E.C. and BUCKBERG, G.D. "Importance of alkalosis in maintenance of "ideal" blood pH during hypothermia". Surgical Forum 26, 262; 1975.

MacKENZIE, G.J. "Intensive Care in the Coronary Crisis". Proc. R. Soc. Med. 58, 103; 1965.

MADIAS, N.E., AYUS, J.C. and ADROGUE, H.J. "Increased Anion Gap in Metabolic Alkalosis : The Role of Plasma-Protein Equivalency". N. Engl. J. Med. 300, 1421; 1979.

MAGALINI, S.I., BANDOLI, A. and SCRASCIA, E. "A Nomogram for the Emergency Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis". Resuscitation. 2, 151; 1973.

MANFREDI, F., SIEKER, H.O. and SPOTO, A.P. "Severe CO2 Intoxication : Treatment with Organic Buffer (THAM)". JAMA. 173, 999; 1960.

MANGER, V.M., NAHAS, G.G. and HASSAM, D. "Effect of pH Control and Increased 02 Delivery in the Course of Hemorrhagic Shock". Ann. Surg. 156, 503; 1962.

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MATTAR, J.A., WEIL, M.H., SHUBIN, H. and STEIN, L. "Cardiac Arrest in the Critically Ill, II Hyperosmolal States Following Cardiac Arrest". Am. J. Med. 56, 162; 1974.

MAZZARA, J.T., AYRES, S.M. and GRACE, W.J. "Extreme Hypocapnia in the Critically Ill Patient". Am. J. Med. 56, 450; 1974.

McFADDEN, E.R. and LYONS, H.A. "Arterial Blood Gas Tensions in Asthma". N. Engl. J. Med. 278, 1027; 1968.

MELLEMGAARD, K. and ASTRUP, P. "The Quantitative Determination of Surplus Amounts of Acid or Base in the Human Body". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 12, 187; 1960.

MILLER, R.D., TONG, M.J. and ROBBINS, Y.O. "Effects of Massive Transfusion of Blood on Acid-Base Balance". JAMA. 216, 1762; 1971.

MITHOEFER, J.C., RUNSER, R.H. and KARETZKY, M.S. "The Use of NaHCO2 in the Treatment of Acute Bronchial Asthma". N. Engl. J. Med. 272, 1200; 1965.

MITHOEFER, J.C., KARETYKES, M.S. and PORTER, W.F. "Indications for the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Intractable Asthma". Respiration. 25, 201; 1968.

MODELL, W. "On the significance of significant". Clin. Pharm. and Therapeutics. 30, 1; 1981.

NAHAS, G.G. "Symposium on 'In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Amino Buffers' Introductory Remarks". Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 92, 337; 1961.

NARINS, R.G. & Cohen, J.J., "Bicarbonate therapy for organic acidosis. The case for its continued use. Ann. Int. Med. 106, 615, 1987.

NEAVERSON, M.A. "Metabolic Acidosis in Acute Myocardial Infarction". Br. Med. J. 2, 383; 1966.

NORWOOD, W.I., NORWOOD, C.R. and CASTANADA, A.R. "Cerebral Anoxia : Effect of deep hypothermia and pH". Surgery. 86, 203; 1979.

NUNN, J.F. "Nomenclature and Presentation of Hydrogen Ion Regulation Data" in Modern Trends Anaesthesia, 2nd Ed. EVANS, F.T. and GRAY, T.C. Pub. Butterworths, London, 1962, p.10.

OH, M.S., CARROLL, H.J. "Current Concepts : The Anion Gap". N. Engl. J. Med. 297, 814; 1977.

OLIVA, P.B. "Lactic Acidosis". Am. J. Med. 48, 209; 1970.

OSNES, J. and HERMANSEN, L. "Acid-Base Balance after Maximal Exercise of Short Duration". J. Appl. Physiol. 32, 59; 1972.

OSTER, J.R., PEREZ, G.O., CASTRO, A. and VAAMONDE, C.A. Relationship between blood pH and K and phosphorous during acute metabolic acidosis. Am. J. Physiol. 235, F345; 1978.

OSTREA, E.M. and ODELL, G.B. The influence of bicarbonate administration on blood pH in a 'Closed System' : Clinical implications. J. Pediatr. 80, 671; 1972.

OSTREA, E.M. Jr. and ODELL, G.B. Alkali therapy and R.D.S. continued. J. Pediatr. 88, 525; 1976.

PAGE, M. McB., ALBERTI, K.G.M. and GREENWOOD, R. Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin. Br. Med. J. 2, 687; 1974.

PAIN, R.W. and WORTHLEY, L. Intravenous HCl. Lancet, 1, 1296; 1974.

PAPIL, L.A., BURSTEIN, J., BURSTEIN, R., KOPPLER, H. and KOPPS, B. Relationship of intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusions and cerebral intraventricular haemorrhage. J. Pediatr. 93, 834; 1978.

PETERS, J.P. and VAN SLYKE, D.D. Carbonic Acid and Acid-Base Balance: Quantitative Interpretations Clinical Chemistry. Chapter 18, 1931. Publisher Williams and Wilkins. (Available in a 1962 reprint). (Classical Text).

PETERS, R.M., HEDGPETH, E. McG. and GREENBERG, B.G. "The Effects of Alterations in Acid-Base Balance on Pulmonary Mechanics". J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 57, 303; 1969.

PICKERING, G. "Normotension and Hypertension: The Mysterious Viability of the False". Am. J. Med. 65, 561; 1978.

PIERCE, E.C. "In General Discussion of Current Concepts on Acid-Base Measurements". Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 133, 112; 1966.

PITTS, R.F. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance, Chapter 11. Physiology of the Kidney and Body Fluids, 3rd Edit. 1974. Year Book Medical Publishers.

PLUM, F. and PRICE, R.W. "Acid-Base Balance of Cisternal and Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid in Hospital Patients". N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 1346; 1973.

POLAK, A. HYANIE, G.D. and HAYS, R.M. "Effects of Chronic Hypercapnia on Electrolyte and Acid-Base Equilibrium, 1, Adaptation". J. Clin. Invest. 40, 1223; 1961. (Loss of Cl).

POPPER, K. 1972. "Objective Knowledge, Chapter 1. Conjectual Knowledge : My Solution of the Problem of Induction". Reprinted 1974.

PRYS-ROBERTS, C., SMITH, W.D.A. and NUNN, J.F. et al. "Accidental Severe Hypercapnia During Anaesthesia". Br. J. Anaesth. 39, 257; 1967.

PRYS-ROBERTS, C., KELMAN, G.R. and NUNN, J.F. "Determination of the In Vivo CO2 Titration Curve in Anaesthetized Man". Br. J. Anaesth. 38, 500; 1966.

RACKWITZ, R., JAHRMARKER, H. and HARDER, M. "Correspondence : Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest". Lancet. 2, 474; 1976.

RAHN, H., REEVES, R.B. and HOWELL, B.J. "Hydrogen ion regulation, temperature and evolution". American Review of Respiratory Disease. 112, 165; 1975.

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RELMAN, A.S. "The Acidosis of Renal Disease". Am. J. Med. 44, 706; 1968.

RISPENS, P., BRUNSTING, J.R. and JOCK, J.P. "A Modified Singer-Hastings Nomogram". J. Appl. Physiol. 34, 377; 1973.

ROSENTHAL, T.B. "Effect of Temperature on the pH of Blood and Plasma In Vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 173, 25; 1948.

RUNE, S.J. and LASSEN, N.A. "Diurnal Variation in the Acid-Base Balance of Blood". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 22, 151; 1968. (pH Changes when Gastric Juice is Secreted).

RUSSELL, B. History of Western Philosophy, 1946, Chapter 17. Hume, Published by Unwin University Books, 2nd Edit. 7th Impression, 1974.

RUSSELL, B. Problems of Philosophy, 1912, Chapter 6. On Induction. Published by Oxford University Press. Reprinted 1973.

SANCHEZ, M.G. and FINLAYSON, D.C. "Dynamics of Serum Potassium Change During Acute Respiratory Alkalosis". Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 25, 495; 1978.

SANDERSON, C. "HCl for Metabolic Alkalosis". Lancet. 1, 933; 1974.

SCHAMBELAN, M., SLATON, P.E. Jr. and BIFLIERI, E.G. "Mineralocorticoid Production in Hyperadrenocorticism : Role in Pathogenesis of Hypokalemic Alkalosis". Am. J. Med. 51, 299; 1971.

SCHULTZ, E.A., BUCKLEY, J.J. and OSWALD, A.J. "Profound Acidosis in an Anaesthetized Human : Report of a Case.. Anesthesiology. 21, 285; 1960. (Accidental Rebreathing).

SCHWARTZ, W.B., BRACKETT, N.C. and COHEN, J.J. "The Response of Extracellular H Concentration to Graded Degrees of Chronic Hypercapnia : The Physiological Limits of the Defence of pH". J. Clin. Invest. 44, 291; 1965.

SCHWARTZ W.B. and COHEN, J.J. "The Nature of the Renal Response to Chronic Disorders of Acid-Base Equilibrium". Am. J. Med. 64, 417; 1978.

SCHWARTZ, W.B., GORRY, G.A., KASSIRER, J.P. and ESSIG, A. "Decision Analysis and Clinical Judgement". Am. J. Med. 55, 459; 1973.

SCHWARTZ, W.B., YPERSELE DE STRIHOU, C., KASSIRER, J.P. "Role of Anions in Metabolic Alkalosis and Potassium Deficiency". N. Engl. J. Med. 279, 630; 1978. (Review).

SEMPLE, P.F., WHITE, C. and MANDERSON, W.G. "Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Small Doses of Insulin in Treatment of Diabetic Keto-Acidosis". Br. Med. J. 2, 694; 1974.

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